Ten-Frames are two-by-five rectangular frames into which counters are placed to illustrate numbers less than or equal to ten, and are therefore very useful devices for developing number sense within the context of ten.
Number bonds let students split numbers in useful ways. They show how numbers join together, and how they are broken down into smaller parts. Number bonds forge the number sense needed for early primary students to move to addition and subtraction. As students progress, number bonds become an essential mental problem-solving strategy.
Students use a number line to calculate simple addition and subtraction problems. Students can make “jumps” to find 8 + 4 by starting at 8 and making 4 forward jumps. The same strategy can be used to subtract.
Base Ten Blocks provide a spatial model of our base ten system. They consist of “ones”, “tens”,hundreds”, and “thousands”. They are useful in providing students with ways to physically represent the concepts of place value, addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division.
Fraction tiles enable students to explore fractions, find equivalent fractions, add and subtract fractions, and work with mixed numbers. Proportionally sized tiles help students compare fractional values.
These charts allow students to explore number patterns and explore concepts of counting and addition. It also helps with understanding skip counting and place value.
A bar model is a pictorial representation of a problem or concept where bars or boxes are used to represent the known and unknown quantities. Bar models are most often used to solve number problems with the four operations – addition and subtraction, multiplication and division with whole numbers and fractions.
A balance scale is used to measure mass or weight. It could also be used to represent equations where students could compare values (objects or numbers) on each side to determine the greater value or if the values are equal.